Home | About CytoJournalEditorial Board | Archived articles | Search CytoJ Articles | Subscribe | Peer review policies | CytoJournal Quiz Cases
  Reviewer corner | Author corner | OA Steward’s corner | CF member’s corner | Join as CF member | Manuscript submission | Open Access (OA) Advocacy
CytoJournal All 'FULL TEXT' in HTML are FREE under "open access" charter of CytoJournal.
To login for downloading any PDF OR to request TOC (Table of Content) by e-mail, please click here
Home Email this page Print this page Small font size Default font size Increase font size Cytopathology Foundation
Navigate here
 » Next article
 » Previous article 
 » Browse articles
Resource links
 »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »  Article in PDF (167 KB)
 »  Citation Manager
 »  Access Statistics
 »  Reader Comments
 »  Email Alert *
 »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
 »  Abstract
 »  Article
 »  References
 »  Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded234    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 6    

Recommend this journal


CytoJournal 2005,  2:11

Diagnostic utility of p16 immunocytochemistry for Trichomonas in urine cytology

Department of Pathology, Baystate Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield, USA

Date of Submission02-Apr-2005
Date of Acceptance29-Jun-2005
Date of Web Publication29-Jun-2005

Correspondence Address:
Liron Pantanowitz
Department of Pathology, Baystate Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 15985185

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

We present a case in which p16 immunocytochemistry helped establish the diagnosis of Trichomonas in urine from a male patient. Based on this finding, we recommend p16 immunocytochemistry as a diagnostic tool for unexpected patients or specimen types in which potential trichomonads are identified following routine cytologic evaluation.

How to cite this article:
Pantanowitz L, Cao Q J, Goulart RA, Otis CN. Diagnostic utility of p16 immunocytochemistry for Trichomonas in urine cytology. CytoJournal 2005;2:11

How to cite this URL:
Pantanowitz L, Cao Q J, Goulart RA, Otis CN. Diagnostic utility of p16 immunocytochemistry for Trichomonas in urine cytology. CytoJournal [serial online] 2005 [cited 2016 Oct 25];2:11. Available from: http://www.cytojournal.com/text.asp?2005/2/1/11/41260

 » Article Top

We received 50 ml of voided urine from a 84-year-old diabetic male who presented with hematuria. Routine urine cultures yielded no growth after 24 hours. A Papanicolaou-stained ThinPrep™ slide was prepared which revealed benign urothelial cells, neutrophils including "cannonballs" (i.e. neutrophils aggregated around epithelial cells), red blood cells and numerous Trichomonas organisms [Figure 1]. The diagnosis of Trichomonas was based upon the presence of a discernible nucleus and cytoplasmic granules that were identified in several of the trichomonads. A visible nucleus and well-defined cytoplasmic granules at 40x magnification are specified as important morphological features required for a confident diagnosis of Trichomonas in liquid-based Pap tests [1]. Although we did not identify flagella in the trichomonads in our case, the finding of flagella, while helpful, is not always required to make a diagnosis of Trichomonas [1]. In fact, the morphologic identification of Trichomonas on liquid-based Pap tests has been shown to be highly accurate [2]. Nevertheless, exfoliated cells including microorganisms in urine are often degenerated, which makes the identification of Trichomonas in these specimens by morphology alone difficult. Therefore, confirmatory testing may be needed. However, traditional methods to detect Trichomonas including culture and wet-mount microscopy, as well as molecular studies, may not always be readily available, particularly on fixed samples received in liquid-based vials for cytologic evaluation.

In order to differentiate parasites from degenerated urothelial cells in our case we prepared additional ThinPrep™ slides from the residual specimen to perform immunocytochemistry for cytokeratin (using a cocktail of high- and low-molecular weight keratins) and p16 (using primary purified mouse anti-human p16 antibody, clone G175-405, supplied by BD Biosciences Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, USA). We included p16 based upon recent published data by our group indicating that Trichomonas vaginalis organisms in cervicovaginal specimens are immunoreactive for p16 [3]. In all ten of these cervicovaginal specimens T. vaginalis were p16 positive and demonstrated strong cytoplasmic staining. Immunocytochemical staining for p16, a proven biomarker for high grade dysplasia associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, has been previously applied successfully to cervicovaginal cytology specimens [4]. However, p16 immunoreactivity is not specific for HPV-infected epithelium, as immunoreactivity has previously been documented with inflammatory cells, multinucleated giant cells, bacteria and mucus in cervicovaginal specimens [4-6]. It is unclear if p16 staining of Trichomonas organisms reflects specific immunoreactivity (to unknown epitopes) or may be non-specific. In our case, urothelial and squamous cells were strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin [Figure 2] but were negative for p16, whereas trichomonads demonstrated strong p16 immunoreactivity [Figure 3] and [Figure 4] and failed to react with cytokeratin. Appropriate controls were included in this study (data not shown). Following the diagnosis of Trichomonas , our patient was treated with a course of metronidazole.

Trichomonas infection in male patients may be asymptomatic or associated with non-gonococcal urethritis, prostatitis, and urethral strictures. Protozoa in men may be harbored in the uncircumcised prepuce, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland or bladder. As shown in the present case, it is often difficult to establish the diagnosis of Trichomonas in men, particularly when the diagnosis is based solely on the cytological evaluation of poorly preserved organisms in a urine specimen. The diagnosis may be especially problematic when the patient denies sexual contact, or when a sexually transmitted disease in a particular patient, such as an infant [7] or the elderly, seems implausible. Adding to the problem is the fact that when in urine, trichomonads usually assume variable shapes [8]. Parasite variation in size and shape may be further exaggerated in air-dried urine smears [9]. In male patients, the organisms also tend to be somewhat smaller than their counterpart in female patients [10]. In addition to the present patient, our laboratory has diagnosed Trichomonas in Papanicolaou-stained urine specimens in eight men of mean age 59 years (range 47-82 years), over a 15 year period. This finding is in keeping with published data suggesting that higher organism loads occur in older men [11]. We do not know if any of these individuals also had diabetes.

In conclusion, as illustrated in the case presented, we recommend the use of p16 immunocytochemistry to help establish the diagnosis of Trichomonas in unexpected patients or specimen types in which potential trichomonads are identified following routine cytologic evaluation.

 » References Top

1.Aslan DL, McKeon DM, Stelow EB, Gulbahce HE, Kjeldahl K, Pambuccian SE: The diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis in liquid-based Pap tests: Morphological characteristics. Diagn Cytopathol 2005, 32: 253-259.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Aslan DL, Gulbahce HE, Stelow EB, Setty S, Brown CA, McGlennen RC, Pambuccian SE: The diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in liquid-based Pap tests: Correlation with PCR. Diagn Cytopathol 2005, 32: 341-344.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Pantanowitz L, Florence RR, Goulart RA, Otis CN: Trichomonas vaginalis p16 immunoreactivity in cervicovaginal pap tests: a diagnostic pitfall. Modern Pathology 2005, 18: 73A-74A.   Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Bibbo M, Klump WJ, DeCecco J, Kovatich AJ: Procedure for immunocytochemical detection of P16 INK4A antigen in thin-layer, liquid-based specimens. Acta Cytol 2002, 46: 25-29.   Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Saqi A, Pasha TL, McGrath CM, Yu GH, Zhang P, Gupta P: Overexpression of p16 INK4A in liquid-based specimens (SurePath™) as marker of cervical dysplasia and neoplasia. Diagn Cytopathol 2002, 27: 365-370.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Sahebali S, Depuydt CE, Segers K, Moeneclaey LM, Vereecken AJ, Van Marck E, Bogers JJ: P16 INK4a as an adjunct marker in liquid-based cervical cytology. Int J Cancer 2004, 108: 871-876.   Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Schares T, Machtinger S, D'Harlingue AE, Maloney JR: Trichomonas vaginalis urinary tract infection in an infant. Pediatr Infect Dis 1982, 1: 340-341.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Malyszko E, Januszko T: Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in men [Article in Polish]. Pol Tyg Lek 1991, 46: 997-999.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Loo CK, Gune S: Trichomonas vaginalis in urine cytology. Acta Cytol 2000, 44: 484-485.   Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Summers JL, Ford ML: The Papanicolaou smear as a diagnostic tool in male trichomoniasis. J Urol 1972, 107: 840-842.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Wendel KA, Erbelding EJ, Gaydos CA, Rompalo AM: Use of urine polymerase chain reaction to define the prevalence and clinical presentation of Trichomonas vaginalis in men attending an STD clinic. Sex Transm Infect 2003, 79: 151-153.  Back to cited text no. 11    


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

This article has been cited by
1 CytoJournal′s move to the new platform: More on financial model to the support open-access charter in cytopathology, publication quality indicators, and other issues
Shidham, V., Pitman, M., Demay, R., Atkinson, B.
CytoJournal. 2008; 5(art 15)
2 The best in CytoJournal: 2005
Cohen, M.B.
CytoJournal. 2006; 3: Art 21
3 Cross-reactivity of trichomonas in cervical p16INK4a immunocytochemistry is dependent on antibody, not antigen [1]
Ridder, R., Trunk, M.J., Negri, G.
Diagnostic Cytopathology. 2006; 34(7): 512-514
4 ASC-H in Pap test- definitive categorization of cytomorphological spectrum
Chivukula, M., Shidham, V.B.
CytoJournal. 2006; 3: Art 14
5 Response to Ridder et al. [2]
Pantanowitz, L., Florence, R.R., Goulart, R.A., Otis, C.N.
Diagnostic Cytopathology. 2006; 34(7): 515
6 Thank you reviewers- CytoJournal 2006
Shidham, V.B., Atkinson, B.F.
CytoJournal. 2006; 3


Previous article Next article


  Site Map | Copyright and Disclaimer
© 2007 - CytoJournal | A journal by Cytopathology Foundation Inc with Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
New version online since 1st July '08
Open Access