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CytoJournal 2018,  15:19

Spectrum of clinicohematological profile and its correlation with average parasite density in visceral leishmaniasis

Department of Pathology, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Poojan Agarwal
Department of Pathology, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_38_17

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Background: Leishmaniasis is the prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Demonstration of Leishman-Donovan (LD) bodies in the bone marrow aspirates (BMA) is vital to diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In the present study, we studied the clinicohematological parameters encountered in VL and correlated them with parasite load on BMA. Methods: Retrospective analysis over 3 years was done; clinical details, biochemical profile, complete hemogram with peripheral smear findings, and BMA smears were reviewed and average parasite density (APD) calculated in each case. Multivariate analysis and tests of significance were applied. Results: The study included 28 patients. Splenomegaly showed a positive trend with APD. rK39 antigen detection test was 100% positive in select cases. A strong negative correlation was observed between albumin to globulin ratio and grade of APD. BMA revealed hemophagocytosis (HPS) in 78.57% cases and it had a significant strong correlation with APD (P = 0.014). A significant correlation was also observed between APD and bone marrow plasma cell percentage (P = 0.01). LD bodies were noted in unusual locations such as within myelocytes (14.2%), plasma cells (7.1%), and megakaryocytes (10.7%). Conclusion: HPS and bone marrow plasmacytosis were two statistically significant findings, which showed positive correlation with parasite load. The presence of these two findings should prompt hematopathologists for more focused search of hemoparasites in BMA to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. This will avoid unnecessary workups and improve the prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, a statistical correlation between APD and clinicohematological parameters has never been previously studied.


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