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Research Article: Immunocytochemical expression of Ki-67/p16 in normal, atypical, and neoplastic cells in urine cytology using BD SurePath™ as preparation method
Kirsten Margrethe Ostbye, Mette Kristin Pedersen, Torill Sauer
CytoJournal 2019, 16:26 (5 December 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_9_19  
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of Ki-67/p16 in urothelial cells in cytological material. Materials and Methods: There were 142 urines including normal controls, anonymous rest urine, controls after treatment for urothelial carcinoma (UC) and newly diagnosed UC. Immunocytochemistry for ki-67/p16 dual staining kit was performed on all specimens.Results: Eight high-grade UC and six anonymous specimens showed dual positivity. None of the low-grade UC or the control specimens after treated UC showed dual staining. Fifteen of 84 (17.8%) symptomatic cases were negative for both markers, and 59/84 (70.2%) showed positivity for both but not dual staining. Twenty-seven of 84 cases were positive for either Ki-67 (n = 22) or p16 (n = 5). Normal controls and benign specimens were negative for p16.Conclusions: Co-expression of p16/Ki-67 in the same cells was found in 16.6% of the cases. All were high grade, and co-expression seems to have limited practical impact as an additional marker in urine cytology. Any positivity for p16 alone strongly indicates malignancy. Negative p16 accompanied by a positive Ki-67 rate at 5% or more could be considered as an additional marker for further clinical follow-up. Both markers, co-expressed and separate, can give additional information in follow-up patients after treatment for UC.
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Case Report: Fine-needle aspiration of axillary swelling: Cytodiagnosis of an unusual presentation of filariasis
Deepika Gupta, Prajwala Gupta, Minakshi Bhardwaj
CytoJournal 2019, 16:25 (5 December 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_17_19  
Lymphatic filariasis is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not routinely used for its identification. However, it has been detected incidentally, while doing FNAC for the evaluation of other lesions. We describe a presentation of occult filariasis with microfilariae (mf) in an isolated axillary swelling wherein FNAC was helpful in establishing the diagnosis.
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Letter to the Editor: Cryptococcal infection masquerading as metastatic pleural-based focus
Sunayana Misra, Chhagan Bihari
CytoJournal 2019, 16:24 (14 November 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_46_18  
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Large lung mass: Cytopathological features
Haruto Nishida, Yuzo Oyama, Takahiro Kusaba, Hiroko Kadowaki, Motoki Arakane, Tsutomu Daa, Satomi Iwao, Koji Hirakawa, Junji Nagahama, Shun-Ichi Kai, Shigeo Yokoyama
CytoJournal 2019, 16:23 (14 November 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_9_18  
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Research Article: Comparative evaluation of conventional cytology and a low-cost liquid-based cytology technique, EziPREP™, for cervicovaginal smear reporting: A split sample study
Ruchika Gupta, Ravi Yadav, Akhileshwar Sharda, Dinesh Kumar, Sandeep , Ravi Mehrotra, Sanjay Gupta
CytoJournal 2019, 16:22 (14 November 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_11_19  
Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical cancer screening offers several advantages over conventional cytology. However, the extremely high cost of the current approved devices precludes widespread application of LBC technique in resource-constrained countries. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of an indigenous low-cost LBC technique, EziPREP™ (EP), against conventional preparations (CPs) for cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional split-sample study with consecutive cervical sampling was conducted on 515 women attending the clinic at our institute. CP smears were prepared as per the standard technique using spatula and endocervical brush followed by detaching the head of brush into the fixative vial of EP. The EP samples were processed as per the manufacturer's protocol. Both CP and EP smears were stained using standard Papanicolaou stain protocol. Both sets of smears were evaluated for staining quality, morphologic details, and cytologic diagnoses. Cytologic diagnoses were correlated with cervical biopsy findings, wherever available. Performance characteristics of the two techniques were calculated. Results: The unsatisfactory rate for CP was 1.0%, while on EP, 1.3% smears had inadequate cellular material. The staining quality and morphological details were comparable in both sets of smears. The detection of infections and epithelial cell abnormality was more, though not statistically significant in EP smears. There was a 98% concordance in cytologic diagnosis between CP and EP smears. Cytohistologic concordance was observed in 96% of cases for both CP and EP smears. Although the time taken for processing and staining of smears was higher for EP (2.5 min for EP per smear and 1.6 min for CP per smear), the screening time reduced from 6.5 min per smear for CP to 2.2 min in EP smears. Conclusion: EP provides monolayered cervical smears with vivid morphological details, leading to reduced screening time and relatively higher pick-up of infections and low-grade cervical lesions as compared to conventional smears. The availability of such low-cost devices may enable wider application of cytology-based cervical cancer screening in low-resource countries.
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Research Article: Impact of the Paris system for reporting urine cytopathology on predictive values of the equivocal diagnostic categories and interobserver agreement
Rania Bakkar, James Mirocha, Xuemo Fan, David P Frishberg, Mariza de Peralta-Venturina, Jing Zhai, Shikha Bose
CytoJournal 2019, 16:21 (22 October 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_30_19  PMID:31741668
Background: The Paris System (TPS) acknowledges the need for more standardized terminology for reporting urine cytopathology results and minimizing the use of equivocal terms. We apply TPS diagnostic terminologies to assess interobserver agreement, compare TPS with the traditional method (TM) of reporting urine cytopathology, and evaluate the rate and positive predictive value (PPV) of each TPS diagnostic category. A survey is conducted at the end of the study. Materials and Methods: One hundred urine samples were reviewed independently by six cytopathologists. The diagnosis was rendered according to TPS categories: negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC), atypical urothelial cells (AUC), low-grade urothelial neoplasm (LGUN), suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (SHGUC), and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). The agreement was assessed using kappa. Disagreements were classified as high and low impacts. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: Perfect consensus agreement was 31%, with an overall kappa of 0.362. Kappa by diagnostic category was 0.483, 0.178, 0.258, and 0.520 for NHGUC, AUC, SHGUC, and HGUC, respectively. Both TM and TPS showed 100% specificity and PPV. TPS showed 43% sensitivity (38% by TM) and 70% accuracy (66% by TM). Disagreements with high clinical impact were 27%. Of the 100 cases, 52 were concurrent biopsy-proven HGUC. The detection rate of biopsy-proven HGUC was 43% by TPS (57% by TM). The rate of NHGUC was 54% by TPS versus 26% by TM. AUC rate was 23% by TPS (44% by TM). The PPV of the AUC category by TPS was 61% versus 43% by TM. The survey showed 33% overall satisfaction. Conclusions: TPS shows adequate precision for NHGUC and HGUC, with low interobserver agreement for other categories. TPS significantly increased the clinical significance of AUC category. Refinement and widespread application of TPS diagnostic criteria may further improve interobserver agreement and the detection rate of HGUC.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Lymphoproliferative process with reactive follicular cells in thyroid fine-needle aspiration: A few simple but important diagnostic pearls
Olubunmi Shoyele, Brent Bacus, Lilliana Haddad, Yilan Li, Vinod Shidham
CytoJournal 2019, 16:20 (22 October 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_5_19  PMID:31741667
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Diagnostic rescue of a silent scalp swelling by fine-needle aspiration
Smita Chandra, Manveer Kour Raina, Sushil Kumar Shukla, Anuradha Kusum, Vipul Nautiyal
CytoJournal 2019, 16:19 (16 September 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_40_18  PMID:31576200
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Research Article: Evaluation of thyroid nodules classified as bethesda category III on cytology and their malignancy rate: An institutional experience
Sayed Ali Almahari, Zainab Harb, Safa Alshaikh
CytoJournal 2019, 16:18 (16 September 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_4_19  PMID:31576199
Background: Thyroid gland nodules are common and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the gold standard for screening those nodules. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytolopathology standardized reporting thyroid nodules aspirations, but atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (Bethesda category III) was the most controversial category. The aim of our study is to review our institutional experience and analyze the clinical implications of making a diagnosis of AUS/FLUS (Bethesda category III). Methods: This is a retrospective study of an 889 thyroid FNAs from 825 patients in Salmaniya Medical Complex, during (January 2013–December 2017). Results: The most common cause for designating cases as AUS/FLUS (Bethesda category III) was the presence of features suggestive of papillary thyroid carcinoma, but not quite fulfilling the criteria for such diagnosis. Ninety-six cases were diagnosed as AUS/FLUS (10.7%), in which 26 (27%) patients underwent surgery without repeating the FNA, 25 (26%) underwent a second FNA and 43 (44.7%) patients were followed up by ultrasound. On repeating the FNA, 1 (4%) was unsatisfactory, 13 (52%) were benign, 10 (40%) were AUS/FLUS, and only 1 (4%) was categorized as malignant. Thirty cases were surgically excised, in which 4 (13.3%) were diagnosed as follicular adenoma, 2 (6.6%) as Hurthle cell adenoma, 9 (30%) as multinodular goiter, 5 (16.6%) as multinodular goiter with Hashimoto thyroiditis, 1 (3.3%) as colloid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 9 (30%) as papillary thyroid carcinoma. Among all the cases diagnosed initially as AUS/FLUS (Bethesda category III), 9 (9.3%) cases were diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: Diagnostically, we almost meet the international standards of designating cases with AUS/FLUS (Bethesda category III) and approximate the risk of malignancy. However, the clinical management's guidelines should be followed to decrease the risk of unnecessary surgeries and their complications. There is a statistically significant correlation between the age and gender with the final histopathology report, respectively.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of subcutaneous lesion: A diagnostic dilemma on cytology
Manjari Kishore, Purnima Malhotra, Manju Kaushal, Preeti Singh, Neeti Kapur
CytoJournal 2019, 16:17 (22 August 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_41_18  PMID:31516539
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Research Article: Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of solid, subsolid, and partially calcified lung nodules: A retrospective study from a single academic center
Yangying Zhou, Gary Gong, Haiyan Wang, Zahra Alikhassy Habibabady, Peggy Lang, Russell Hales, Frederic Askin, Ed Gabrielson, Qing Kay Li
CytoJournal 2019, 16:16 (22 August 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_43_18  PMID:31516538
Background: The large-scale National Lung Cancer Screening Trial demonstrated an increased detection of early-stage lung cancers using low-dose computed tomography scan in the screening population. It also demonstrated a 20% reduction of lung cancer-related deaths in these patients. Aims: Although both solid and subsolid lung nodules are evaluated in studies, subsolid and partially calcified lung nodules are often overlooked. Materials and Methods: We reviewed transthoracic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases from lung nodule patients in our clinics and correlated cytological diagnoses with radiologic characteristics of lesions. A computer search of the pathology archive was performed over a period of 12 months for transthoracic FNAs, including both CT- and ultrasound-guided biopsies. Results: A total of 111 lung nodule cases were identified. Lesions were divided into three categories: solid, subsolid, and partially calcified nodules according to radiographic findings. Of 111 cases, the average sizes of the solid (84 cases), subsolid (22 cases), and calcified (5 cases) lesions were 1.952 ± 2.225, 1.333 ± 1.827, and 1.152 ± 1.984 cm, respectively. The cytological diagnoses of three groups were compared. A diagnosis of malignancy was made in 64.28% (54 cases) in solid, 22.72% (5 cases) in subsolid, and 20% (1 case) in partially calcified nodules. Among benign lesions, eight granulomatous inflammations were identified, including one case of solid, five cases of subsolid, and two cases of calcified nodules. Conclusions: Our study indicates that solid nodules have the highest risk of malignancy. Furthermore, the cytological evaluation of subsolid and partially calcified nodules is crucial for the accurate diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of lung nodule patients.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: A rare case of malignant metastatic tumor diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration of cervical lymph node
Arvind Ahuja, Savita Kumari
CytoJournal 2019, 16:15 (25 July 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_26_18  PMID:31516537
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Research Article: The risk for malignancy using the Milan salivary gland classification categories: A 5-year retrospective review
Christine A Liang, Jing Liu, Jaiyeola Thomas Ogunniyi, Hui Zhu, Songlin Zhang
CytoJournal 2019, 16:14 (25 July 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_45_18  PMID:31516536
Aims: Since the six-tier Milan salivary gland classification has been introduced, there are very limited studies in literature reporting the risk stratification of the Milan classification. Methods: We retrospectively classified a total of 285 salivary gland cytology cases into Milan reporting categories; there were 23 (8.1%) nondiagnostic, 48 (16.8%) nonneoplastic, 19 (6.7%) atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), 138 (48.4%) benign neoplasm, 13 (4.6%) neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential (NUMP), 8 (2.8%) suspicious for malignancy, and 36 (12.6%) malignant. Almost 110 cases (38.6%) had surgical follow-up resections. Results: The overall risk for malignancy (ROM) was 12.5% for AUS, 3.2% for benign neoplasm, 72.7% for NUMP, and 100% for the suspicious for malignancy and malignant. The ROM for nondiagnostic and nonneoplastic categories was not representative due to limited follow-up resections. The salivary cytology had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 93.0%, 100%, 100%, and 46.2% for neoplasm and 82.3%, 95.8%, 90.3%, and 92.0% for malignant. Conclusion: Our study supports the adaptation of the six-tier Milan classification for reporting salivary gland cytology, as well as emphasizing the utility of the NUMP category.
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Research Article: Use of the term atypical cells in the reporting of ascitic fluid cytology: A caveat
Radha Ramachandra Pai, Krithika Damodar Shenoy, Jessica Minal, Pooja K Suresh, Shrijeet Chakraborti, Flora D Lobo
CytoJournal 2019, 16:13 (28 June 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_37_18  PMID:31367221
Background: Abdominal paracentesis is a routine diagnostic procedure for assessment of patients with recent onset or worsening of ascites. Objectives: The objective of the study is to (1) review clinically confirmed cases of malignancy with negative, atypical, and suspicious cytology reports and provide reasoning for discrepancies and (2) recalculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values after review. Materials and Methods: Papanicolaou smears of ascitic fluid paracentesis samples received over one calendar year were reviewed retrospectively by an expert in cytopathology blinded to the final clinical and/or histopathological diagnoses. Cases with discrepancies after review were noted. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated before and after review of slides. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Malignant etiology was identified in 49/115 cases (42.6%) with female genital tract being the most common site of malignancy (22, 44.8%). The remaining 66 (57.4%) had a benign etiology with hepatic cirrhosis in 42 cases (63.6%). A review revealed discrepancies in five cases, three of which were earlier called negative for malignant cells (one case each of ovarian adenocarcinoma, cecal adenocarcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma). Two cases of ovarian adenocarcinoma that were reported as atypical/reactive mesothelial hyperplasia showed malignant cells upon review. Sensitivity and specificity after review were 69.4% and 100%, respectively, with 100% positive predictive value. Conclusion: Being a minimally invasive procedure, abdominal paracentesis continues to be an important diagnostic tool in guiding patient management. A proper morphological assessment with adequate clinical information and correlation with other investigations can be used to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in most cases. The term “atypical” can be misleading and is often used for want of clinical information and is best avoided.
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Review Article: CellBlockistry: Chemistry and art of cell-block making – A detailed review of various historical options with recent advances Highly accessed article
Vinod B Shidham
CytoJournal 2019, 16:12 (28 June 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_20_19  PMID:31367220
Cell-blocks are paraffin-embedded versions of cytology specimens comparable to the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue from surgical pathology specimens. They allow various elective ancillary studies on a variety of specimens with enhanced cytopathologic interpretation, including opportunity to perform molecular tests. However, different dictionaries and internet search engines primarily project “cellblock” and “cell block” definition in relation to prisons. Most of the top searches lead to information related to “prison cells” followed by a few cytopathology-related searches. Due to this in the current review, it is recommended that the word for cytopathology purposes should be hyphenated and spelled as “cell-block.” Cell-blocks have been increasingly indicated on most cytology specimens. Its role is growing further with the ongoing addition of new immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers with technical advances including multicolor IHC and the SCIP (subtractive coordinate immunoreactivity pattern) approach. In addition, it is an important source of tissue for many ancillary studies even as archived material retrospectively at later stage of management if the cell-blocks are improved qualitatively and quantitatively. Because of this, the significance of cell-block is critical with the increasing number of molecular markers standardized predominantly on FFPE tissue. As compared to core biopsies, high-quality cell-blocks prepared with enhanced methodologies predominantly contain concentrated diagnostic tumor cells required for the molecular tests without significant stromal contamination. This review introduces the terminology of CellBlockistry as the science of studying chemistry and the art of achieving quantitatively and qualitatively improved cell-blocks from different types of specimens. The review addresses the cell-block making process as “cell-blocking” and discusses different historical limitations with emphasis on recent advances.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: CytoJounal quiz case: Fine-needle aspiration of peripancreatic mass clinically mimicking a lymphoma
Adela Cimic, Natasha Rekhtman
CytoJournal 2019, 16:11 (24 May 2019)
DOI:0.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_34_18  
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Research Article: Cytologic smears improve accuracy of frozen sections of ovarian tumors in the community practice settings
Adela Cimic, Maria Mironova, Fady Khoury-Collado, Ziyan Salih
CytoJournal 2019, 16:10 (24 May 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_20_18  PMID:31367218
Background: The ovaries can be the site for various primary tumors and also the presenting site of metastatic disease. Quick and correct intraoperative diagnosis is crucial for the patient's further management. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of the combined diagnostic method – ovarian frozen sections in conjunction with cytologic smears. Methods: From June 2016 to June 2017, we prospectively prepared additional two cytologic smears with Diff-Quik stain on ovarian frozen sections comprised of two hematoxylin and eosin sections. For quality assurance purposes, we compared the results of frozen section discrepancies and deferrals with those that of the previous year from June 2015 to June 2016. Results: With the introduction of cytologic smears to ovarian frozen sections, the number of discrepancies and deferrals combined decreased from 13.75% to 7.85%. The most benefit of smears was observed in primary ovarian malignancies. Conclusions: In the setting where all the members of the pathology group render cytologic evaluations routinely, smears play an important complementary role.
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Case Report: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology of choroid plexus tumor: A report of two cases
Manjari Kishore, Prajwala Gupta, Minakshi Bhardwaj
CytoJournal 2019, 16:9 (22 April 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_22_18  PMID:31080487
Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) are relatively uncommon tumors of the central nervous system, constituting approximately 5% of all pediatric brain tumors. Although squash cytology of CPT has been described in literature, shedding of tumor cells into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has rarely been described. We report two such cases of atypical choroid plexus papilloma in a 5-month-old male child and a 12-year-old female child, where characteristic cytomorphology of CPT was noted in the CSF.
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Research Article: Subtyping of non-small cell lung cancer by cytology specimens: A proposal for resource-poor hospitals
Betul Celik, Tangul Bulut, Andras Khoor
CytoJournal 2019, 16:8 (22 April 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_19_18  PMID:31080486
Aim: Cancer diagnosis and treatment depend on pathology reports but naming a cancer is sometimes impossible without specialized techniques. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of cytological sub-classification of non-small cell lung carcinoma, not otherwise specified group (NSCLC-NOS) into Adenocarcinoma (AC) and Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) without using immunohistochemistry. Methods: Endobronchial ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies and cytology slides diagnosed as NSCLC-NOS between 2004- 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The final diagnosis was reached by immunohistochemistry (TTF-1, p63) when necessary. Results: One hundred-twenty nine cases were retrieved. The final diagnoses were as follows: SqCC: 30.3%; AC: 65.7%; combined tumor (3 adenosquamous and 1 small cell + SqCC): 4%. Cytological diagnoses rendered were as follow: Definitely SqCC: 10.1%; favor SqCC: 14.1%; definitely AC: 38.4%; favor AC: 35.4%; NSCLC-NOS: 2%. The sensitivity and specificity of cytology were 86.3 and 87.5% for AC diagnosis respectively. Conclusion: Positive and negative predictive value of cytology was 95.3% and it was even 100% for well to moderately differentiated tumors. There was a tendency to sub-classify poorly differentiated SqCC as AC. Papanicolaou stain increased the diagnostic accuracy of SqCC. The combined tumor rate was 4% and after recognizing a tumor component, the second component was missed if the slide examination was terminated prematurely.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Anterior neck swelling in a child: Cytological consideration of an uncommon diagnosis
Sonia Raghav, Prajwala Gupta, Arvind Ahuja, Minakshi Bhardwaj
CytoJournal 2019, 16:7 (15 March 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_17_18  PMID:31031817
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Methodology Article: Validation of immunohistochemical tests performed on cytology cell block material: Practical application of the College of American Pathologists' guidelines
Swati Satturwar, Renuka Malenie, Ann Sutton, Ding Dai, F Zahra Aly
CytoJournal 2019, 16:6 (15 March 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_29_18  PMID:31031816
The advent of fiberoptic endoscopy with biopsy has revolutionized procurement of specimens from deep sites. This has translated into more cytologic specimens whereby the material is limited and best handled by cytology laboratory staff. While the diagnosis of the pathologic process is of utmost importance, there is increasing expectation that the diagnosis be specific and accurate as not to require additional biopsy for initiation of treatment. This expectation has driven demand in immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular studies conducted specifically on material processed as cytology specimens. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 requires laboratories in the United States of America to verify the performance of patient tests. Due to varying laboratory practices with respect to validation of IHC assays, the College of American Pathologists introduced guidelines for analytic validation of IHC tests. These guidelines address how to perform validation by recommending the number of cases in the validation set, comparator concordance, and when to revalidate. The main thrust of the guidelines is based on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue with only one expert consensus opinion referring to validation of IHC tests on cytology specimens which delegates to the medical director, the determination of number of positive and negative cases to be tested. This article will outline how an academic center approaches validation of IHC studies performed on cytology cell block specimens using the College of American Pathologists guidelines. A stepwise approach from selection of antibodies to validate followed by building the validation panel and evaluating the stain results for concordance against the gold standard of histology tissue specimen will be described. A rationale for dealing with discordant results and future innovations will conclude the report.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of a thyroid nodule: Challenging morphologic considerations
C Eric Freitag, Lynn Schoenfield, Fadi A Nabhan, Richard T Naturale, Ming Jin
CytoJournal 2019, 16:5 (11 February 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_8_18  PMID:30820235
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Review Article: A welcoming guide to social media for cytopathologists: Tips, tricks, and the best practices of social cytopathology
Fikret Dirilenoglu, Binnur Onal
CytoJournal 2019, 16:4 (11 February 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_1_18  PMID:30820234
This guide provides an overview of social media (SoMe) use with the recent updates for the “cytopathologists and the ones interested in”. Our aim was to introduce the basic terms and rules, the potential benefits and risks, and some tips and tricks for using SoMe. The two most popular SoMe platforms, Facebook and Twitter, were the focus of this article. Thus far, many pathologists have already proved how efficiently the SoMe services could be utilized; the same applies specifically to the community of cytopathology. In our opinion, the more CPs are involved in SoMe, the more connected, productive, and stronger the community will become.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: An unusual presentation of carcinoma in gallbladder
Rajesh Kumar, Nalini Gupta, Pranab Dey, Sreedhara B Chaluvashetty, Ujjwal Gorsi
CytoJournal 2019, 16:3 (22 January 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_15_18  PMID:30820233
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Commentary: Is it time to standardize fine needle aspiration of gall bladder lesions and what city name it will be stamped with?
Mousa A Al-Abbadi
CytoJournal 2019, 16:2 (22 January 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_21_18  PMID:30820232
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Research Article: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of gallbladder with an attempt of cytomorphological classification
Smita Chandra, Harish Chandra, Sushil Kumar Shukla, Shantanu Sahu
CytoJournal 2019, 16:1 (22 January 2019)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_5_18  PMID:30820231
Background: Image-guided fine-needle aspiration has emerged as an effective diagnostic tool for precise diagnosis of deep-seated lesions. Although occasional studies have made an attempt to classify the gallbladder carcinoma on cytology, literature lacks the standardized cytological nomenclature system used for it. The present study was conducted to study the role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in diagnosis of gallbladder lesions with an attempt of cytomorphological classification. Methods: The study included cases of image-guided FNAC of the gallbladder over a period of 3½ years. An attempt was made to categorize gallbladder lesions on basis of architectural and cytomorphological features along with analysis of management. Results: The study included 433 cases and lesions were categorized on FNAC into five categories ranging from Category 1 (inadequate), Category 2 (negative for malignancy), Category 3 (atypical cells), Category 4 (highly atypical cells suggestive of malignancy), and Category 5 (positive for malignancy). The most common architectural pattern observed on FNAC of neoplasm was sheets and acini with predominance of columnar cells and adenocarcinoma being the most common malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was available in 93 cases with cytohistopathological concordance of 94.4% in malignant cases. Conclusions: Image-guided FNAC plays an important role in diagnosis of gallbladder lesions with minimal complications. The cytomorphological classification of gallbladder lesions provides an effective base for accurate diagnosis and management. Category 3 and 4 are the most ambiguous category on FNAC which should be managed by either repeat FNAC or surgery in the light of worrisome radiological features. The vigilant examination of architectural pattern and cytomorphological features of the smears may be helpful in clinching the diagnosis and precisely subtyping malignant tumors along with prognostication of these tumors.
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CytoJournal Quiz Case: Cytology of achylous hematuria: A clue to an underlying uncommon clinical scenario
Manjari Kishore, Vijay Kumar, Manju Kaushal, Apoorva Gomber
CytoJournal 2018, 15:30 (24 December 2018)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_11_18  PMID:30662516
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Research Article: Comparison of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunostain for nonsmall cell lung carcinoma between paired cytological and surgical specimens
Huihong Xu, Laura Bratton, Michael Nead, Donna Russell, Zhongren Zhou
CytoJournal 2018, 15:29 (24 December 2018)
DOI:10.4103/cytojournal.cytojournal_2_18  PMID:30662515
Background: programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a ligand for the inhibitory programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-L1), which are targeted by several anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 drugs for lung cancer treatment. In clinical practice, many lung cancer cases only have cytology samples available to test PD-L1. Our current study compared the PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) between paired cytological and surgical samples. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed lung cancer tissue microarray and paired cell blocks and surgical specimens from the same patients with a confirmed diagnosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 29) and adenocarcinoma (AC, n = 23) were sectioned for PD-L1 IHC. Results: PD-L1 was expressed on tumor cells in 16 of 29 (55%) SCC surgical specimens and 18 of 29 (62%) paired cytologic specimens with 83% matched immunostains. PD-L1 was expressed on tumor cells in 13 of 23 (57%) AC surgical specimens and in 17 of 23 (74%) paired cytologic specimens with 79% matched immunostains. The PD-L1 was expressed on inflammatory cells in 20 of 23 (87%) AC surgical specimens and in 15 of 23 (65%) paired cytologic specimens with 70% matched immunostains. The PD-L1 was expressed on inflammatory cells in 18 of 29 (62%) SCC surgical specimens and in 12 of 29 (41%) paired cytologic specimens with 79% matched immunostains. Conclusions: PD-L1 immunostain in cytology samples matched very well with paired surgical samples in both SCC and AC cases. The cytologic samples present slightly higher sensitivity for PD-L1 immunostain on tumor cells as compared to surgical biopsies.
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